Joseph T. Giacino, Ph.D.

Joe Giacino

Joseph T. Giacino, Ph.D.

Director of Rehabilitation Neuropyschology
Research Associate in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Clinical and Research Interests: Neuropsychology, traumatic brain injury, disorders of consciousness 

Ph.D. - Clinical/School Psychology Hofstra University (APA Approved) 
09/81-08/82   M.A. - Psychology - Hofstra University   
09/77-05/81   B.A. - Psychology - Fairfield University 
06/89 New Jersey Licensed Psychologist   
12/09 Recognized by the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology  

Internship: South Nassau Communities Hospital/Oceanside Mental Health Center   
09/82-06/83   School Psychology Internship, Weldon E. Howitt School

Dr. Giacino's clinical and research activities are centered on the development and application of novel assessment and treatment methods for individuals with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and disorders of consciousness (DOC). He served as co-chair of the Aspen Workgroup (responsible for developing the diagnostic criteria for the minimally conscious state [MCS]) and was co-lead author of the Mohonk Report, which provided recommendations to the U.S. Congress for lifelong care of patients with DOC.    

He currently chairs the VS/MCS Guideline Development Panel, co-sponsored by the American Academy of Neurology, American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and charged with revising existing guidelines for management of patients with DOC. He is principle investigator on a project funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) to develop novel fMRI paradigms to assess the integrity of language and visual processing networks in patients with DOC.He also served as  Project Director of a recently-completed, NIDRR-funded 12-site clinical trial of amantadine hydrochloride (AH) designed to determine whether AH facilitates functional recovery in patients with prolonged disturbances in consciousness, and was Co-PI of an FDA-approved pilot study of deep brain stimulation aimed at promoting recovery of speech and motor functions in patients with chronic post-traumatic MCS.    Dr. Giacino has also served a term as President of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and as a Department of Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers Emerging Consciousness Program Subject Matter Expert. 

Peer-Reviewed Research
Malec JF, Hammond FM, Giacino JT, Whyte J, Wright J. Structured interview to improve the reliability and psychometric integrity of the disability rating scale. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Sep; 93(9):1603-8.

Giacino JT, Whyte J, Bagiella E, Kalmar K, Childs N, Khademi A, Eifert B, Long D, Katz DI, Cho S, Yablon SA, Luther M, Hammond FM, Nordenbo A, Novak P, Mercer W, Maurer-Karattup P, Sherer M. Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar; 366(9):819-26.

Yang L, Shklyar I, Lee HW, Ezeani CC, Anaya J, Balakirsky S, Han X, Enamandram S, Men C, Cheng JY, Nunn A, Mayer T, Francois C, Albrecht M, Hutchison AL, Yap EL, Ing K, Didebulidze G, Xiao B, Hamid H, Farooque P, Detyniecki K, Giacino JT, Blumenfeld H. Impaired consciousness in epilepsy investigated by a prospective responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES). Epilepsia. 2012 Mar; 53(3):437-47.

Hirschberg R, Giacino JT. The vegetative and minimally conscious states: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Neurol Clin. 2011 Nov; 29(4):773-86.

Nakase-Richardson R, Whyte J, Giacino JT, Pavawalla S, Barnett SD, Yablon SA, Sherer M, Kalmar K, Hammond FM, Greenwald B, Horn LJ, Seel R, McCarthy M, Tran J, Walker WC. Longitudinal Outcome of Patients with Disordered Consciousness in the NIDRR TBI Model Systems Programs. J Neurotrauma. 2012 Jan 1; 29(1):59-65.
Assessment scales for disorders of consciousness: evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice and research. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Dec; 91(12):1795-813.

Wilde EA, Whiteneck GG, Bogner J, Bushnik T, Cifu DX, Dikmen S, French L, Giacino JT, Hart T, Malec JF, Millis SR, Novack TA, Sherer M, Tulsky DS, Vanderploeg RD, von Steinbuechel N. Recommendations for the use of common outcome measures in traumatic brain injury research. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Nov; 91(11):1650-1660.e17.
Rodriguez Moreno D, Schiff ND, Giacino J, Kalmar K, Hirsch J. A network approach to assessing cognition in disorders of consciousness. Neurology. 2010 Nov 23; 75(21):1871-8.

Lovstad M, Froslie KS, Giacino J, Skandsen T, Anke A, Schanke AK. Reliability and diagnostic characteristics of the JFK Coma Recovery Scale- Revised: Further validation and assessment of rater's level of experience. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, in press.   

Giacino J, Schnakers C, Rodriguez-Moreno D, Kalmar K, Schiff N, Hirsch J. Behavioral assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness: Gold standard or fool's gold? Progress in Brain Research 2009;177:33-48.   

Majerus S, Bruno M-A, Schnakers C, Giacino J, Laureys S. The problem of aphasia in assessment of consciousness. Progress in Brain Research 2009;177:49-61.   

Whyte J, Gosseries O, Chervoneva I, DiPasquale M, Giacino J, Kalmar K, Katz D, Novak P, Long D, Childs N, Mercer W, Maurer P, Eifert B. Predictors of short-term outcome in brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness. Progress in Brain Research 2009;177:63-72.    

Schnakers C, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Giacino J, Ventura M, Boly M, Majerus S, Moonen G, Laureys S. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment. BMC Neurology 2009;9:35.   

Schiff ND, Giacino JT, Fins J. Deep brain stimulation, neuroethics and the minimally conscious state: Moving beyond proof of principle. Arch Neurol 2009;66(6):697-702.   

Illes J, Lau P, Giacino J. Neuroimaging, impaired states of consciousness and public outreach. Nature- Clinical Practice Neurology 2008;4(10):542-543.  

McKinney JS, Giacino JT. Diagnostic accuracy in disorders of consciousness. Neurologist 2008;15(5):340. 
Schnakers C, Majerus S, Giacino J, Vanhaudenhuyes A, Bruno MA, Boly M, Moonen G, Damas P, Lambermont P, Lamy M, Damas F, Ventura M, Laureys S. A French validation study of the Coma Recovery Scale- Revised. Brain Injury, 2008;22(10):786-792.   

Vanhaudenhuyse A, Giacino J, Schnakers C, Kalmar K, Smart C, Bruno MA, Gosseries O, Moonen G, Laureys S. Blink to visual threat does not herald consciousness in the vegetative state. Neurology 2008;71(17):1374-1375.  
Smart C, Giacino J, Cullen T, Rodriguez-Moreno D, Hirsch J, Schiff N, Gizzi M. Locked-in syndrome complicated by central deafness: Neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings. Nature- Clinical Practice Neurology 2008;4(8):448-453.    

Hanks RA, Millis SR, Ricker JH, Giacino JT, Nakase-Richardson R, Frol AB, Novack TA, Kalmar K, Sherer M, Gordon W. The predictive validity of a brief inpatient neuropsychologic battery for persons with traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89(5):950-957.   

Kalmar K, Novack TA, Nakase-Richardson R, Sherer M, Frol AB, Gordon W, Hanks RA,Giacino JT, Ricker JH. The feasability of a brief neuropsychologic test battery during acute inpatient rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89(5):942-949.   

Giacino J, Smart C. Recent advances in behavioral assessment of individuals with disorders of consciousness. Current Opinion in Neurology 2007;20(6):614-619.   

Fins JJ, McMaster M, Gerber L, Giacino JT. The minimally conscious state: A diagnosis in search of an epidemiology. Arch Neurol 2007;64(10):1400-1405.
Schiff ND, Giacino JT (co-lead author), Kalmar K, Victor JD, Baker K, Gerber M, Fritz B, Eisenberg B, O?Connor JO, Kobylarz EJ, Farris S, Machado A, McCagg C, Plum F, Fins JJ, Rezai A. Behavioral improvements with thalamic stimulation after severe traumatic brain injury. Nature 2007;448(Aug 2):600-604.    

Laureys S, Giacino J, Schiff N, Schabus M, Owen A. "How should functional imaging of patients with disorders of consciousness contribute to their clinical rehabilitation needs" Current Opinion in Neurology 2006;19:520-527. 

Giacino J, Hirsch J, Schiff N, Laureys S. Functional neuroimaging applications for assessment and rehabilitation planning in patients with disorders of consciousness. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006;87(Suppl 2):S67-S76.   

Schnakers C, Giacino J, Kalmar K, Piret S, Lopez E, Boly M, Malone R, Laureys S. "Does the FOUR score correctly diagnose the vegetative and minimally conscious states" [letter] Annals of Neurology 2006;60(6):744-745.   

Voss HU, Ulug AM, Dyke JP, Watts R, Kobylarz EJ, McCandliss B, Heier LA, Beattie BJ, Hamacher KA, Vallabhajosula S, Goldsmith SJ, Ballon D, Giacino JT, Schiff ND. "Axonal re-growth in late recovery from the minimally conscious state" J of Clinical Investigation 2006;116:205-211.   

Giacino, J. The minimally conscious state: Defining the borders of consciousness. In: Laureys S (ed.): Progress in Brain Research, The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2005;150:381-395.   

Cicerone K, Dahlberg C, Malec JF, Langenbahn D, Felicetti T, Kneipp S, Ellmo W, Kalmar K, Giacino JT, Harley JP, Laatsch L, Morse P, Catanese J. Evidence-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation: Updated Review of the Literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical  Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2005;86:1681-1692.   

Giacino J. Diagnostic and prognostic guidelines for the vegetative and minimally conscious states. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2005;15(3-4):166-174.    Kalmar K, Giacino J. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale- Revised.  Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2005;15(3-4):454-460.   

Moussouttas M, Giacino J, Papamitsakis NI. Amnestic syndrome of the subcallosal artery. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 2005;19:410-414.   

Whyte J, Katz D, Long D, DiPasquale M, Polansky M, Kalmar K, Giacino J, Childs N, Mercer W, Novak P, Maurer P, Eifert B. Predictors of Outcome in Prolonged Posttraumatic Disorders of Consciousness and Assessment of Medication Effects: A Multicenter Study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2005;86:453-462.     

Schiff ND, Rodriguez-Moreno D, Kamal A, Kim KHS, Giacino J, Plum F, Hirsch J. Functional MRI reveals large scale network activation in minimally conscious patients. Neurology, 2005;64:514-523.
Giacino J, Whyte J. The vegetative and minimally conscious states: Current knowledge and remaining questions. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2005;20(1):30-50.   

Giacino J. The vegetative and minimally conscious states: Consensus-based criteria for establishing diagnosis and prognosis. Neurorehabilitation, 2004;19(4):293-298.   

Giacino JT, Kalmar K, Whyte J. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale- Revised: Measurement Characteristics and Diagnostic Utility. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2004;85(12):2020-2029.   

Giacino JT, Trott C. Rehabilitative Management of Patients with Disorders of Consciousness : Grand Rounds. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2004;19(3):262-273.

Schiff N, Ribary U, Rodriguez-Moreno D, Beattie B, Kronberg E, Blasberg R, Giacino J, McCagg C, Fins J, Llinas R, Plum F. Residual Cerebral Activity and Behavioral Fragments Can Remain in the Persistently Vegetative Brain. Brain, 2002;125:1210-1234.

Giacino JT, Ashwal S, Childs N, Cranford R, Jennett B, Katz DI, Kelly JP, Rosenberg JH, Whyte J, Zafonte RD, Zasler ND. The minimally conscious state: Definition and diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 2002;58:349-353.   

Cicerone K, Dahlberg C, Kalmar K, Langenbahn D, Malec JF, Berquist TF, Felicetti T, Giacino JT, Harley JP, Harrington D, Herzog J, Kneipp S, Laatsch L, Morse P. Evidence-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Clinical Practice. Archives of  Physical  Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2001;81:1596-1614.   

Feinberg, TE, Eaton LA, Roane, DM and Giacino, JT.  Multiple Fregoli Delusions After Traumatic Brain Injury. Cortex. 1999;35:373-387.   

Giacino, JT, Cicerone KD. Varieties of Deficit Unawareness After Brain Injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 1998;13(5):1-15.   

Giacino, JT. (Guest Editor). Preface to Disorders of Consciousness.  Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 1997;12(4):vii-viii.   

Giacino, JT, Kalmar, KA. The Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States: A comparison of clinical features and functional outcome during the first year post-injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 1997;12(4):36-51.   

Giacino, JT, Zasler ND, Katz D, Kelly JP, Rosenberg MD, Filley C. Development of Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Management of the Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States. Journal Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 1997;12(4):79-89. 

Giacino, JT. Disorders of Consciousness: Diagnostic Considerations and Limits of Certainty. Seminars in Neurology 1997;17(2):105-11 .    

Giacino, JT. (Guest Editor). Introduction to Evaluation and Management of Low Level Neurologic States.  Neurorehabilitation. 1996;6:1-2.   

Giacino, JT. Sensory Stimulation: Theoretical Perspectives and the Evidence for Effectiveness.  Neurorehabilitation. 1996;6:69-78.   

Giacino, J., Zasler, N., Whyte, J., Katz, D., Glenn, M., and Andary, M. Recommendations for Use of Uniform Nomenclature Pertinent to Patients with Severe Alterations in Consciousness. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1995;76(2):205-209. 

Giacino, J. and Zasler, N. Outcome Following Severe Brain Injury: The Comatose, Vegetative and Minimally Responsive Patient. Journal of Head Trauma  Rehabilitation.  1995;10(1):40-56. 

Cicerone, K. and Giacino, J. Remediation of Executive Function Deficits After Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurorehabilitation, 1992(3):12-22. 

Giacino, J., Kezmarsky, M., DeLuca, J. and Cicerone, K.  Monitoring Rate of Recovery to Predict Outcome in Minimally Responsive Patients.  Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1991;72(Oct):897-901. 

Giacino, J. Neuropsychological Contributions to Understanding and Remediating Disorders of Behavior, Cognition and Emotion. Learning Consultant Journal, 1989;10: 31-34.

I would like to thank Dr, Frankel and the 6th floor staff for all you have done for me while at Spaulding. Since my return in Israel, I am doing fine. I am sure the foundations of my fast recovery have been laid at Spaulding, and am very grateful for what you and your staff have done during my stay.

Edna G.

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